ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND RESEARCH COST REDUCTION

ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND RESEARCH COST REDUCTION

ELECTRONIC DEVICES AND RESEARCH COST REDUCTION

Arduino Battery Charger (Solar Cell, Wind Turbine, Grid line, LCD Display, Charging Relay, Loading Relay, Battery Temperature Control)

Case:

Normally, making a battery charging management system seems to be a difficult task. However, after reading this article, you will find out that using ARDUINO and one-month learning C programming, it wouldn’t be expensive to design your own battery charge management system.  

No doubt that other optional accessories and complementary circuits could be added to this circuit for different applications.

Design Steps:

  1. Draw a simple general block diagram of the design including the connection between components in a paper to depict the whole project.
  2. Arrange the elements in the flowchart and specify their logical interconnections for the next step.
  3. Programming and create the lines of codes.
  4. Check the program and the functionality of the components, step by step.
  5. Make a fault finding review of the design to figure out the weak points and change them with better solutions.
  6. The bottom line is that all conditions, statements, and variables have to be work out together in a proper and rational way, to form a comprehensive and accurate program.
  7. Since the INPUTS and OUTPUTS of Arduino are limited, you are confined to adding more INPUTS and OUTPUTS.

Solution:

In order to achieve this goal, two Arduinos could be coupled to get more capabilities. Another way is to add complementary circuits to Arduino to control the charging parameters without programming by Arduino. This can be done by using BQ24650 or any other charge control ICs.

Electronic Components used in the design

  1. Solar System with 14V DC output
  2. Wind Turbine with 14V DC output
  3. Gridline (220V or 110V) stepped down to 14V DC
  4. Arduino for programming the orders
  5. LCD Display
  6. A potentiometer as a Thermistor
  7. LED Indicators
  8. Buzzer
  9. Input analog control elements

Programming Criteria:

There are seven programming statuses:

  1. Battery voltage below 12V, while the battery temperature is at the normal temperature and at least one of the three input Generators is activated.
  2. Battery voltage below 12V, while the battery temperature is above the normal temperature while charging process.
  3. Battery voltage 12V, while the battery temperature is at the normal temperature.
  4. Battery voltage 12V, while the battery temperature is above the normal temperature.
  5. Wind Turbine is activated while Solar is deactivated.
  6. Solar System activated while Wind Turbine is deactivated.
  7. Solar System and Wind Turbine are both deactivated and automatically Grid Line is activated.

The 1st status:

  • The Charging relay = CLOSED
  • Charging LED indicator= ON
  • Warning LED indicator= in a normal blinking status
  • Warning buzzer = in a normal buzzing rate
  • LCD displays (“BATTERY” “Charging”)
  • SOLAR voltage is 14V
  • TURBINE voltage is 14V
  • GRID LINE is 14V and its relay is opened and its LED is OFF
  • SOLAR CELL relay is closed and its LED is ON
  • WIND TURBINE relay is closed and its LED is ON
  • LOADING relay is opened

Arduino Solar Turbine Grid

The 2nd status:

  • The Charging RELAY = OPENED
  • Charging LED indicator = OFF
  • Warning LED indicator= in warning blinking status
  • Warning BUZZER = in warning buzzing rate
  • LCD displays (“BATTERY”” HIGH TEMPERATURE”)
  • SOLAR voltage is 14V
  • TURBINE voltage is 14V
  • GRID LINE is 14V and its relay is opened and its LED is OFF
  • SOLAR CELL relay is closed and its LED is ON
  • WIND TURBINE relay is closed and its LED is ON
  • LOADING relay is opened

Arduino Solar Turbine Grid

The 3rd status:

  • The Charging RELAY = OPENED
  • Charging LED indicator = OFF
  • Warning LED indicator= OFF
  • Warning BUZZER = OFF
  • The loading RELAY = CLOSED
  • LCD displays (“LOAD”” CONNECTED”)
  • SOLAR CELL relay, WIND TURBINE relay and GRID line`s relay are opened and their LEDs are OFF

Arduino Solar Turbine Grid

The 4th status:

  • The loading RELAY = OPENED
  • The Charging RELAY = OPENED
  • Warning LED indicator= in warning blinking status
  • Warning BUZZER = in warning buzzing rate
  • LCD displays (“BATTERY”” HIGH TEMPERATURE”)
  • SOLAR CELL relay, WIND TURBINE relay and GRID line`s relay are opened and their LEDs are OFF

Arduino Solar Turbine Grid

The 5th status:

  • The Charging relay = CLOSED
  • Charging LED indicator= ON
  • Warning LED indicator= in a normal blinking status
  • Warning buzzer = in a normal buzzing rate
  • LCD displays (“BATTERY” “Charging”)
  • SOLAR CELL Voltage is below 10V
  • WIND TURBINE Voltage is 14V
  • SOLAR CELL relay is opened and its LED is OFF
  • WIND TURBINE relay is closed and its LED is ON
  • GRID relay is opened
  • LOADING relay is opened

Arduino Solar Turbine Grid

The 6th status:

  • The Charging relay = CLOSED
  • Charging LED indicator= ON
  • Warning LED indicator= in a normal blinking status
  • Warning buzzer = in a normal buzzing rate
  • LCD displays (“Charging”)
  • SOLAR CELL Voltage is 14V
  • WIND TURBINE Voltage is below 10V
  • SOLAR CELL relay is closed and its LED is ON
  • WIND TURBINE relay is opened and its LED is OFF
  • GRID relay is opened
  • LOADING relay is opened

Arduino Solar Turbine Grid

The 7th status:

  • The Charging relay = CLOSED
  • Charging LED indicator= ON
  • Warning LED indicator= in a normal blinking status
  • Warning buzzer = in a normal buzzing rate
  • LCD displays (“Charging”)
  • SOLAR CELL Voltage is below 10V
  • WIND TURBINE Voltage is below 10V
  • SOLAR CELL relay is opened and its LED is OFF
  • WIND TURBINE relay is opened and its LED is OFF
  • GRID relay is closed and its LED is ON
  • LOADING relay is opened

Arduino Solar Turbine Grid

See How Good The Program Works

Results and Impacts:

For a professional designer using PCB testing and quality, checking devices is the best approach for getting assured about the product’s proper functionality, for newbie designers, trial, and error and simple to complex approach sometimes is the simplest and best way of checking the design.

But don’t forget that, the general concept and algorithm are very important for implementing any project, in another word, you should exactly know what you want.

“Knowing is not enough, we must apply, willing is not enough, we must do”.

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